Richmond’s Nasal and Facial Plastic Surgery Specialists

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Adenoid: A mass of lymphatic tissue similar to the tonsils, but situated behind the nasal cavity and above the soft palate.

Allergic rhinitis: Inflammation of the nasal airways caused by repeated exposure to otherwise harmless proteins.

Antigen: A substance that evokes the production of abnormal antibodies in sensitive individuals.

Antioxidant: A molecule that inhibits the oxidation of other molecules.


Balloon Sinuplasty: An endoscopic procedure to dilate the natural openings of blocked sinuses without surgery.

Blepharoplasty: A surgical modification of the eyelid.


Collagen: A group of naturally occurring proteins found in animals.

Carotid Artery: The primary blood vessel supplying the head, face and brain.

Cholesteatoma: A destructive skin cyst in the middle ear space.

Congenital Disorder: Any condition existing at birth, before birth, or that develops during the first month of life, regardless of causation.


Endoscopy: The process of looking inside the body for medical reasons using an endoscope.


Fluoroscopy: An X-ray to obtain real-time moving images through the use of a fluoroscope.


Hypertrophy: The increase in the volume of an organ or tissue due to the enlargement of its component cells.


Immunotherapy: The treatment of disease by inducing, enhancing, or suppressing an immune response.


Laryngopharyngeal Reflux: A retrograde flow of gastric contents to the upper aero-digestive tract, which causes a variety of symptoms, such as cough, hoarseness, and asthma, among others.

Liposuction: A cosmetic surgery operation that removes subcutaneous fat by passing a suction tube through a small skin incision.


Malaise: A feeling of general discomfort or uneasiness; often the first indication of an infection or other disease.

Myringotomy: A surgical procedure in which a tiny incision is created in the eardrum to relieve pressure caused by excessive build-up of fluid from the middle ear to improve hearing.


Nasal septum: The partition between the two nasal cavities.

Nasolacrimal Duct: The tube that carries tears from the eyes to the nose.


Otolaryngology: The branch of medicine and surgery that specializes in the diagnosis and treatment of disorders of the ears, nose and throat, including plastic and reconstructive surgery of the head and neck.

Otoplasty: A surgical procedure for correcting deformities of the external ear.

Otosclerosis: An abnormal growth of bone that prevents normal vibration of the stapes, causing a conductive hearing loss.

Otoscopy: Examination of the ear canal and eardrum with a light and magnifying lens called an otoscope.


Polyps: An abnormal growth of tissue projecting from a mucous membrane.

Parotid gland: A pair of salivary glands located just in front of the ear lobes.


Quinolone: A class of antibiotics that are particularly useful for resistant respiratory infections. Common brands include Cipro (ciprofloxacin), Levaquin (levofloxacin) and Avelox (moxifloxicin).


Restylane: An injectable filler containing hyaluronic acid. Restylane lasts about 6-12 months.

Rhinoplasty: A plastic surgery procedure performed on the external nose.

Rhinosinusitis: A sinus infection.

Rhytidectomy: A facelift.


Septoplasty: A corrective surgical procedure done to straighten the nasal septum.

Sinusitis: A sinus infection.

Sleep apnea: Abnormal pauses in breathing during sleep.

Stapedectomy: A surgical treatment for otosclerosis in which the stapes is replaced with an artificial piston in the middle ear to improve hearing.


Tinnitus: The perception of sound within the human ear in the absence of corresponding external sound.

Turbinates: Long, narrow and curled bone shelves that protrude into the breathing passage of the nose.